Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have gained wide recognition as effective energy storage devices and power supply sources due to their exceptional volumetric energy density, mass energy density and cycling performance. The cathode materials, which are a key component of LIBs, play a crucial role in determining the electrochemical performance of these batteries. Therefore, there is an increasing demand to explore and investigate suitable high-energy electrode materials that can provide greater capacity and output voltage for the next generation of LIBs. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest research on five typical high-voltage cathode materials. Specifically, this review will focus on the detailed analysis of their crystalline structures, reaction mechanisms during cycling, current research status and strategies aimed at improving or enhancing their overall electrochemical performance. Overall, the insights presented in this review will help researchers to design and develop high-energy cathode materials with improved performance for the next generation of LIBs.