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Layered vanadium oxides: Promising cathode materials for calcium-ion batteries

Yuhan Wu*, Qing Zhao, Zhijie Wang



All in all, LVOs have been shown the feasibility as Ca2+ host materials, but it is currently worth considering how to accelerate ion and electron transfer rates and strengthen structural stability simultaneously with a view to realizing high specific capacities, long cycling stability, and fast charge/discharge capabilityEvery cloud has a silver lining. Although improvement strategies, such as interlayer engineering, nanostructural design, etc., have exhibited significant enhancement, more attention should be paid to their negative effects and operation difficulties. Additionally, we would like to emphasize that LVOs have been widely used in other multivalent ion (e.g., Zn2+, Al3+) batteries, but the obtained experiences and knowledge cannot be directly applied to CIBs because the discrepancies of various multivalent ions such as charge density and ionic radius may result in significantly different charge storage behaviors regardless of the physical/chemical similarities. As an emerging battery technology, CIBs also remain elusory issues in anode/electrolyte interphase. The surface of the Ca metal anode is easily passivated in most conventional electrolytes with sluggish and poorly reversible Ca stripping/plating behaviors. The modification of cathode materials is suggested to be in combination with electrolyte design to achieve further improvements in CIBs.
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